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Expeditions

Death between the Dunes

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Al-Mutawakkil Great Mosque and archaeological site (9th century AD). In June 363 AD, it must have been boiling hot and wearing roman heavy armor certainly did not help.

In June of year 363 AD, near the city of Samarra in modern day Iraq, a large professional Roman army was in a state of total chaos. The Romans were led by Princeps Julian, a cultured and competent leader who had led the army to victory near the Persian capital of Ctesiphon a month earlier. Julian however failed to capitalize on this important tactical victory, and did not siege the city as an incoming force led by the King of Kings Shapur II was closing in from the east. Near Samarra, Julian’s army of 35,000 was intercepted by skirmishing cavalry sent by Shapur. The Persians attacked the roman cohorts who were advancing in square formations to avoid encirclement. Julian, seeing his troops panicking in front of the sudden Sassanid attack, rushed forward without his armor in order to encourage his men to fight on. He was however spotted by Sassanid officers who sent an arab regiment of auxiliary cavalry to assassinate him. Julian was hit on his back by a javelin and was immediately rushed to the rearguard. His doctor Oribasius couldn’t do anything, as the Emperor died a few hours later in his tent. The roman army, now without a leader, chose Jovian (Julian’s Comes Domesticorum) as the new emperor. Facing continuous raids from the Sassanids, the Romans were forced to sign a humiliating peace treaty with Shapur II. Shortly after the peace negotiations, emperor Jovian died in his tent in Anatolia (Dadastana) under mysterious circumstances.

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Emperor Julian (361-363 AD) is famous for his struggle against the now dominating Christian faith in the Roman Empire. Julian’s beard symbolyzes his philosophical erudition and his attachment to the pagan tradition.

 

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The Sogdian Rock

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Babak Castle, located in North-Western Iran. The Achaemenid and Sassanid Persians were famous for building their castles on top of steep mountains.

In the spring of 327 BC, Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, had conquered most of the persian Achaemenid empire and defeated the King of Kings Darius III in numerous battles. Alexander had arrived in Central Asia, in a region known then as Sogdiana (modern day Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) and had encountered stiff resistance from the Iranic peoples that lived in the hereto unexplored region. One of the leaders of the resistance was Oxyartes, a persian nobleman who had a beautiful daughter named Roxanne. Roxanne was sent by her father to a fortified castle near the city of Maracanda (Samarkand). The castle was considered impregnable, as it was located on the top of a steep mountain and therefore nicknamed “The Sogdian Rock”. While Alexander was preparing the troops for the siege, the confident defenders told him that to take their castle he would need “men with wings”. Alexander took 300 volunteers experienced in rock climbing (Macedonia being a mountainous region, his men were skilled climbers) and sent them up the slopes of the mountain. When the men arrived on the top, Alexander sent messangers to tell the Persians that if they looked up on the walls, they would have seen their winged men. The Persians, astonished, surrendered to Alexander. After the siege Alexander married Oxyartes’s daughter Roxanne, who gave him a son, Alexander IV.

An Expedition to Carnuntum: The Main Roman Fort on the Limes Pannonicus

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Map of the Danube frontier around Vindobona. Down the river to the east, the Romans built the fort of Arrabona, modern day Györ, Hungary.

Carnuntum was one of the main roman forts on the Danube frontier, and, in particular, on the Limes Pannonicus, a section of the Danube Limes. Carnuntum is a center of celtic origin, its name deriving from from “kar” or “karn” which means rock in Celtic. During late roman times, the castrum was used by emperor Valentinian I as the main springboard for his aggressive campaigns against the Quadi tribes, germanic people. Carnuntum had a legionary fortress, an auxiliary fort and was home to the Pannonian river fleet. The auxiliary fort hosted the Ala I Thracum, a cavalry regiment, which, as the name suggests, came from the roman province of Thracia, in modern day Bulgaria. Ruins of a large amphitheater built around the second half of the 2nd century AD, which could host around 12.000 spectators, are still visible today.

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A photo of me in the town’s roman amphitheater built around 200 AD. Petronell-Carnuntum, Lower Austria. 19 January 2017. 

Additionally, a civil center developed around the forts, most probably inhabited by the family of the soldiers. In 308 AD the city hosted the Carnuntum conference, a diplomatic gathering between the main leaders of Diocletian’s tetrarchy. Emperor Valentinian rebuilt the military forts which had been destroyed by the repeated incursions of the Jazigi, a Sarmatian (Iranian) tribal group. After the death of Valentinian in 375 AD at the fort of Brigetio, in modern day Hungary, the forts of Carnuntum went into disrepair. Today’s emblem of the city  is the so called Heidentor, a monumental archway erected next to the fort probably dedicated to the reunion of the tetrarchs under Diocletian or to  Valentinian’s victories against germanic tribes.

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Heidentor, monumental archway erected around 300 AD. Petronell-Carnuntum, Lower Austria. 19 January 2017. 

The so called “amber road”, which can still be walked on, ran through the legionary fort in Carnuntum leading to Aquileia, Friuli Venezia Giulia and Rome. Memories of roman times are still strong, as many streets and hotels are named after roman emperors. Carnuntum remains the most ancient roman fort on the Limes Pannonicus, a true stronghold against barbarian hordes.

 

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