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The Sogdian Rock

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Babak Castle, located in North-Western Iran. The Achaemenid and Sassanid Persians were famous for building their castles on top of steep mountains.

In the spring of 327 BC, Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, had conquered most of the persian Achaemenid empire and defeated the King of Kings Darius III in numerous battles. Alexander had arrived in Central Asia, in a region known then as Sogdiana (modern day Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) and had encountered stiff resistance from the Iranic peoples that lived in the hereto unexplored region. One of the leaders of the resistance was Oxyartes, a persian nobleman who had a beautiful daughter named Roxanne. Roxanne was sent by her father to a fortified castle near the city of Maracanda (Samarkand). The castle was considered impregnable, as it was located on the top of a steep mountain and therefore nicknamed “The Sogdian Rock”. While Alexander was preparing the troops for the siege, the confident defenders told him that to take their castle he would need “men with wings”. Alexander took 300 volunteers experienced in rock climbing (Macedonia being a mountainous region, his men were skilled climbers) and sent them up the slopes of the mountain. When the men arrived on the top, Alexander sent messangers to tell the Persians that if they looked up on the walls, they would have seen their winged men. The Persians, astonished, surrendered to Alexander. After the siege Alexander married Oxyartes’s daughter Roxanne, who gave him a son, Alexander IV.

The Pompei of the Desert

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Ancient Paleo-Christian baptistry of Dura-Europos.

On the western bank of the Euphrates, near the border of modern day Iraq and Syria, once stood the ancient walled town of Dura-Europos. Founded as a military colony by Selecus I Nicator, one of Alexander the Great’s successors, Dura-Europos became a sprawling city, serving as a crossroads of cultures and empires. Under Roman rule, the city became one of the most strongly fortified points on the eastern border with the Sassanid Persians. In the year 256 AD, the Sassanid King of Kings, Shapur I, laid siege to the city. The siege was extremely violent, with the Sassanids trying multiple times to undermine Roman defenses. The Persians may have also used poisoned gas, stemming from ignited sulphur crystals, in order to kill the roman defenders, in what is an ancient example of chemical warfare. The skeleton of the Sassanid soldier who was most likely responsible for the release of the gas was found by archaeologists. Even a siege ramp was erected by the Sassanid troops in order to breach the defenses of the city. Eventually the Sassanids did manage to take the city, deporting the survivors to Ctesiphon and selling them as slaves. The city then became a ghost town, as emperor Valerian was defeated and captured by Shapur’s forces near Edessa in 260 AD and therefore could not intervene in time. Desert sands would gradually cover the city’s buildings, miraculously preserving them for future archaeology. Evidence of Dura’s cultural diversity throughout the centuries can be found in the retrieved works written in Greek, Latin, Palmyrean, Hebrew and Middle Persian. The city contained a Christian chapel, a Synagogue, a Mithraeum and an Agorà, proof of the greek/macedonian origin of the town. Dura also housed a Roman military camp, the base from which the Roman garrison operated the defense of the walls in 256 AD. The extensive archaelogical evidence (which included also many pagan temples, the Praetorium and the city walls) present in the town led to the city being called: “the Pompei of the Desert”. Contemporary satellite images show that 70% of the site has been destroyed by looters and by ISIS operations in the region. One of the guards of the archaeological site has been beheaded. Dura-Europos is now lost to the the desert winds of Eastern Syria.

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View of Dura-Europos on the Euphrates. The city held a strategic position as a military fort and trading center. 

The “Fifth” Maritime Republic

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View of the bay of Gaeta from the villa of Mamurra in Gianola, Formia, southern Latium. Legends say that Ulysses met the dangerous sorceress Circe nearby the city.

After the gradual disintegration of the Western Roman empire and the Eastern Roman reconquest of the Italian peninsula in the 6th century AD, a small castle called Castrum Cajetanum, situated on the southern Tyrrhenian coastline of Italy, began to flourish under Byzantine rule. The fortified castle, on the slopes of Monte Orlando (a place full of greco-roman legends) slowly started to gain autonomy from the central authority of Costantinople, becoming de facto independent by the 9th century AD. During this time, the rulers of Gaeta and its surroundings were called Hypati, a Byzantine title equivalent to the Latin Consul. During the high Middle Ages, the rulers of Gaeta allied themselves with the pope and fought against saracen pirates, defeating them at the battle of Ostia in 849 AD and at the battle of Garigliano in 915 AD. From this time onwards, Gaeta gradually turned into a sprawling trading centre, with its ships reaching as far as Constantinople, Syria and North Africa. Gaeta became so powerful and rich, that it was commonly referred to as the “fifth” Maritime Republic along with Amalfi, Venice, Pisa and Genoa. Gaeta’s golden age ended in 1140 AD, when the city was absorbed by the Norman Kingdom of Sicily, led by King Roger II.
One of the main primary sources on the history of Gaeta is the Codex Diplomaticus Cajetanus, a collection of historical documents, written in the nearby Abbey of Montecassino. The famous Caetani family, of which pope Boniface VIII is part, is said to descend from the powerful Hypati of Gaeta.

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12th century medieval bell tower of the dome of Gaeta, episcopal residence since the 9th century AD.

The Warrior Archbishop

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5th century mosaic of Ambrose as an imperial official. This portrait is considered a realistic one. St. Ambrose’s basilica, Milan, Italy.

On November 30th 374 AD, the atmosphere was extremely tense in the city of Medionalum (modern day Milan). Arian archbishop Auxentius had just died and the city had to nominate his successor. The election occurred in an unidentified church of the city. There, the citizens, divided between the Arian and the Nicene creeds, were struggling to find common ground, while a high ranking imperial official, a man named Ambrose, listened carefully to their speeches. After listening to their reasons, Ambrose made a speech aimed at restoring harmony between the two factions. While talking, a man in the crowd shouted: “Ambrose for bishop!”. Soon afterwards, the whole crowd started shouting: “Ambrose for bishop!”. This is how Ambrose, an important player at the court of emperor Valentinian I, became Archbishop of one of the most important cities of the Roman West. However, he never wanted to pursue a career in the church. Although a Nicene Christian, he was trained to become an imperial civil administrator, not a member of the clergy. With time however, Ambrose, a strong personality with impressive rhetorical skills,  learned how to act as a successful religious figure and even became the tutor of the emperor’s son, Gratian. Ambrose was elected bishop during a time in which the power of the Roman state in the West was waning and the Christian church was gradually taking control over secular matters. As a bishop, Ambrose was an enemy to Arian Christians, deemed as heretics at the council of Nicaea in 325 AD. The emperor’s wife, Giustina, however, was among the Arian faction. After the death of Valentinian I in 375 AD, Ambrose therefore entered into a fierce contrast with the imperial court, which was dominated by Arian christians. During this period, Ambrose built four basilicas in the city in order to strengthen his position: the basilica martyrum, the basilica apostolorum, the basilica virginum and the basilica prophetarum. He also clashed with a pagan aristocrat, Quintus Aurelius Symmachus, who was a stern supporter of the traditional politeistic roman religion. The Archbishop eventually won both encounters, risking his own life during an Arian attack and becoming one of the most powerful men in Milan. He went as far as excommunicating emperor Theodosius I after the massacre of Thessalonica, during which the emperor ordered the slaughter of 7.000 citizens. This demonstrated his enormous personal power and extreme self confidence. Ambrose introduced a new form of liturgical chant, the Canto Ambrosiano, known for its collective singing. He was one of the first Christian religious figures to hold significant secular power. Currently, he is the patron saint of Milan. He is displayed on the first Gonfalone of the same city.

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Beautiful absidal mosaic of St. Ambrose’s basilica. St. Ambrose’s basilica, Milan, Italy. 

Late Roman Coin Collection of the Kunsthistorischesmuseum

The Coin Collection of the Kusnthistorischesmuseum in Vienna, Austria is one of the five largest and most important coin collections in the world. Its Münzkabinett owns over half a million objects which make it one of the largest collections of its kind, and it can be traced back until the 16th century. Most of the coins and medallions listed below are part of a special collection of the highest-carat gold pieces from the Vienna Coin Cabinet once-imperial collection. Many of the objects on display were honorific gifts to the emperor or were targeted acquisitions for the imperial collection.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Golden coin of Emperor Constantine the Great, a valiant general and the man responsible for the Edict of Toleration emanated in Milan in 313 AD.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Coin of Philip the Arab, one of the innumerable military emperors of the 3rd century AD.

 

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Coin of Eastern roman Emperor Theodosius II, author of the Codex Theodosianus, a compilation of general laws and edicts.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Medallion depicting emperor Constantius II, middle child of Constantine I and Fausta. Constantius is often underrated as a leader despite having successfully defended the Empire’s frontiers on various occasions.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Medallion of emperor Valentinian the Great. Soldier emperor, cultured man, excellent strategist and good administrator, Valentinian was one of the last strong political figures of the roman West.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Huge gold coin depicting the brother emperors, Valentinian the Great and Valens. Valentinian died of a stroke in 375 AD, in modern day Hungary. His brother Valens died in battle in 378 AD near Adrianople, modern day Edirne.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Splendid gold medallion depicting Eastern roman emperor Valens. According to Ammianus Marcellinus, Valens was a good looking man of medium height and with olive skin.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Another beautiful medallion of Valens. The emperor sternly defended the arian christian cause. Ammianus Marcellinus tells us that he was an extremely loyal friend.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Yet another medallion of Valens. Valens was the son of Gratian the Elder, a prominent military commander.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Guess who this is? That’s right, it’s our pal Valens. I think it’s safe to say he enjoyed being portrayed.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Valens my friend, how many times have I told you? Don’t be too narcissistic! The guy never listened…

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Medallion of Valens. The emperor began his career as a Protector Domesticus and was then elevated to the throne by his brother Valentinian I.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Amazing medallion of Constantine I, the emperor who built the city of Constantinople, modern day Instanbul.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Coin of emperor Constantine I, founder of the original Saint Peter’s basilica in Rome.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

 Coin of Valentinian I, a legend of the Late Roman Era.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

 

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Coin of emperor Julian, also called “The Apostate”. He tried to revive the pagan cults in the mostly Christian roman empire.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Golden coin of Constans I, represented holding  a globe which symbolyzes power.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

 Coin of a byzantine emperor holding a cross.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Silver coin of emperor Constantine I, known as “Trachala” for his big neck.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Silver coin of Constantius II, wearing the imperial diadem.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett. 

Coin of Constantius II, the man who ordered the execution of Caesar Gallus.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Coin representing Valentinian and Valens seated on the throne. Barbarians or slaves are prostrating beneath them.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Golden solidus depicting Constantius II among his soldiers and officers.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Amazing and rare big medallion depicting emperor Valens on horseback.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Coin depicting emperors Carus and Carinus, military emperors of the 3rd century AD.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Golden bar which, on the left, depicts three emperors: Theodosius I, Valentinian II and Arcadius.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Golden bar issued by Theodosius I.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Coin of Constans I, youngest son of Constantine I.

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Wien, Kunsthistorischesmuseum, Münzkabinett.

Coin of emperor Maximian, soldier emperor and collegue of Diocletian. He is often portrayed as a violent and cruel man, especially by Christians. His real character was probably different, we will never know.

A New Era of Portraiture

In the portraits of Costantine, we see evidence of new and traditional styles when depicting the face of the emperor.

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Coins of emperor Constantine the Great. Credit to Fortunato Zampolini.
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Coins of emperor Constantine the Great. Credit to Fortunato Zampolini

On the one hand, Costantine is clean shaven, similar in style to the portraits of emperor Trajan but unlike portraits of 3rd century emperor Probus. He is portrayed with an imperial diadem in his hair, similar to that of an oriental King. Costantine is also portrayed with exceptionally large eyes, which perhaps symbolize divine inspiration or strenght of character.

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Coin of military emperor Probus. Credit to Fortunato Zampolini

On the other hand, the way Probus is depicted provides an example of how 3rd century military emperors were usually portrayed: bearded, with short military hair and crowned. 

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