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View of the bay of Gaeta from the villa of Mamurra in Gianola, Formia, southern Latium. Legends say that Ulysses met the dangerous sorceress Circe nearby the city.

After the gradual disintegration of the Western Roman empire and the Eastern Roman reconquest of the Italian peninsula in the 6th century AD, a small castle called Castrum Cajetanum, situated on the southern Tyrrhenian coastline of Italy, began to flourish under Byzantine rule. The fortified castle, on the slopes of Monte Orlando (a place full of greco-roman legends) slowly started to gain autonomy from the central authority of Costantinople, becoming de facto independent by the 9th century AD. During this time, the rulers of Gaeta and its surroundings were called Hypati, a Byzantine title equivalent to the Latin Consul. During the high Middle Ages, the rulers of Gaeta allied themselves with the pope and fought against saracen pirates, defeating them at the battle of Ostia in 849 AD and at the battle of Garigliano in 915 AD. From this time onwards, Gaeta gradually turned into a sprawling trading centre, with its ships reaching as far as Constantinople, Syria and North Africa. Gaeta became so powerful and rich, that it was commonly referred to as the “fifth” Maritime Republic along with Amalfi, Venice, Pisa and Genoa. Gaeta’s golden age ended in 1140 AD, when the city was absorbed by the Norman Kingdom of Sicily, led by King Roger II.
One of the main primary sources on the history of Gaeta is the Codex Diplomaticus Cajetanus, a collection of historical documents, written in the nearby Abbey of Montecassino. The famous Caetani family, of which pope Boniface VIII is part, is said to descend from the powerful Hypati of Gaeta.

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12th century medieval bell tower of the dome of Gaeta, episcopal residence since the 9th century AD.
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